留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

遴选法官:学历和专业孰重要——基于提高司法效率角度的研究

陈刚

陈刚. 遴选法官:学历和专业孰重要——基于提高司法效率角度的研究[J]. 广东财经大学学报, 2019, 34(3): 88-101.
引用本文: 陈刚. 遴选法官:学历和专业孰重要——基于提高司法效率角度的研究[J]. 广东财经大学学报, 2019, 34(3): 88-101.
CHEN Gang. Which Weighs in Selection of Judges, Education Background or Profession: Evidence from the Improvement of Judicial Efficiency[J]. Journal of Guangdong University of Finance & Economics, 2019, 34(3): 88-101.
Citation: CHEN Gang. Which Weighs in Selection of Judges, Education Background or Profession: Evidence from the Improvement of Judicial Efficiency[J]. Journal of Guangdong University of Finance & Economics, 2019, 34(3): 88-101.

遴选法官:学历和专业孰重要——基于提高司法效率角度的研究

详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈刚(1981-),男,四川内江人,西南政法大学经济学院教授,博士生导师,副院长

  • 中图分类号: DF8;F224

Which Weighs in Selection of Judges, Education Background or Profession: Evidence from the Improvement of Judicial Efficiency

  • 摘要: 尽管中国是一个成文法国家,但由于书面法律的不完备,拥有相当自由裁量权的法官的素质高低对司法效率有着直接且重要的影响。利用中国高级人民法院院长与辖区法院匹配的数据,研究发现: 法官的专业背景显著影响了以结案率来衡量的司法效率,在由毕业于法学专业的法官任高院院长的地区,当地法院的结案率要比其他地区高约2.5个百分点;但法官有更高的学历却并未显著提高司法效率。使用基层法院法官与微观案件匹配数据的研究也发现,法官学历的高低并未显著影响以审判时间衡量的司法效率。
  • 图  1  各任高院院长任期内的累积结案率

    图  2  高院院长上任的时间分布

    图  3  高院院长的年龄和任期分布情况

    图  4  高院院长的学历和专业分布情况

    表  1  各变量描述性统计

    变量 均值 标准差 最小值 最大值 观测值
    结案率 0.947 0.046 0.828 1.013 84
    最高学历 2.728 0.840 1 4 92
    全日制学历 2.543 1.083 1 5 92
    法学 0.489 0.503 0 1 92
    男性 0.924 0.267 0 1 92
    年龄 54.163 3.757 43 60 92
    任期 7.484 3.934 1.2 19.8 89
    初任职法院 0.239 0.429 0 1 92
    人均GDP 2.164 1.511 0.335 6.933 84
    每万人律师数 1.700 2.169 0.222 11.369 84
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  法官的学历和专业对结案率的影响

    (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
    education -0.011* -0.012* -0.011* -0.002 -0.004 0.000
    (0.006) (0.006) (0.006) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005)
    major 0.027*** 0.024** 0.025** 0.025*** 0.022** 0.021*
    (0.009) (0.011) (0.011) (0.009) (0.011) (0.011)
    male 0.018 0.014 0.014 0.009
    (0.018) (0.018) (0.018) (0.018)
    age -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001
    (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
    tenure -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000
    (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.001)
    experience 0.009 0.008 0.013 0.010
    (0.014) (0.014) (0.015) (0.015)
    pergdp 0.003 0.003
    (0.004) (0.004)
    lawyer 0.004*** 0.005***
    (0.002) (0.002)
    year 控制 控制 控制 控制 控制 控制
    R2 0.221 0.250 0.307 0.193 0.220 0.280
    观测值 84 84 84 84 84 84
    注:******分别表示1%、5%和10%的显著性水平;括号中的数值是稳健性标准差。表 3表 4
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  法官的学历和专业对结案率的影响:删除任期未满2年和未卸任样本

    删除任期未满2年的样本 删除尚未卸任的样本
    (1) (2) (3) (4)
    education -0.012*(0.006) -0.001(0.005) -0.018**(0.007) -0.003(0.006)
    major 0.025**(0.011) 0.021*(0.011) 0.026**(0.013) 0.023*(0.013)
    male 0.029*(0.016) 0.025(0.016) -0.001(0.020) -0.007(0.018)
    age -0.001(0.001) -0.000(0.001) -0.001(0.001) -0.001(0.001)
    tenure -0.000(0.002) -0.000(0.002) -0.000(0.002) 0.000(0.002)
    experience 0.020(0.013) 0.022(0.014) 0.011(0.016) 0.015(0.018)
    pergdp 0.003(0.004) 0.003(0.004) 0.004(0.005) 0.002(0.006)
    lawyer 0.005**(0.002) 0.005**(0.002) 0.004*(0.002) 0.004(0.003)
    year 控制 控制 控制 控制
    R2 0.348 0.312 0.336 0.267
    观察值 77 77 58 58
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  法官的学历和专业对结案率的影响:面板数据回归

    (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
    education -0.008* -0.008* -0.004 0.001 0.000 0.002
    (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.003) (0.003) (0.003)
    major 0.012** 0.013* 0.013* 0.011* 0.011* 0.013*
    (0.006) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.008)
    male 0.021** 0.018** 0.018** 0.016*
    (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009)
    age 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
    (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
    tenure 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
    (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
    experience 0.013 0.017* 0.014 0.017**
    (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009)
    pergdp 0.005* 0.005*
    (0.003) (0.003)
    lawyer 0.005*** 0.006***
    (0.001) (0.001)
    year 控制 控制 控制 控制 控制 控制
    R2 0.205 0.220 0.274 0.197 0.212 0.273
    观测值 354 354 354 354 354 354
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  法官学历对司法效率的影响:来自基层人民法院法官的证据

    受理-宣判时间
    (1)
    受理-开庭时间
    (2)
    开庭-宣判时间
    (3)
    master -3.760(3.421) -1.905(4.008) 1.839(3.031)
    male 3.014(3.510) -0.419(3.252) 1.180(2.200)
    age -1.0856***(0.304) -0.1795196 -0.841***(0.182)
    experience 0.454**(0.187) 0.226(0.219) 0.311**(0.122)
    defendant -8.499**(3.429) -12.379***(3.034) 3.783*(2.237)
    simple -86.432***(3.145) -82.248***(3.384) -3.903**(1.949)
    complexity 31.64***(6.216) 7.319(5.472) 28.891***(3.901)
    year 控制 控制 控制
    R2 0.573 0.601 0.204
    观测值 1115 847 847
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1] MESSICK P. Judicial reform and economic development: a survey of the issues[J]. World Bank Research Observer, 1999, 14(1): 117-136. doi: 10.1093/wbro/14.1.117
    [2] NORTH D C. Institutions, institutional change, and economic performance[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
    [3] CLARKE D, MURRELL P, WHITING S. The role of law in China's economic development[C]//RAWSKI R, BRANDT L. China's great economic transformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008: 375-428.
    [4] 陈刚. 法官异地交流与司法效率——来自高院院长的经验证据[J]. 经济学(季刊), 2012(4): 1171-1192. https://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-JJXU201204002.htm
    [5] BASCAGLIA E, RATLIFF W. Law and economics in developing countries[R].Hoover Institution Press Publication, 2000: 469.
    [6] 中国企业家调查系统. 企业经营者对宏观经济形势、经济政策、企业经营环境及改革热点的判断、评价和建议[J]. 管理世界, 2006(12): 88-103. https://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-GLSJ200612008.htm
    [7] 刘静. 司法效率与法官素质[N]. 光明日报, 2002-06-11(05).
    [8] 沈敏荣. 法律不确定性之克服[J]. 政治与法律, 1998(2): 28-31. https://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-ZHEN802.014.htm
    [9] 吕忠梅. 职业化视野下的法官特质研究[J]. 中国法学, 2003(6): 5-13. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-1707.2003.06.002
    [10] VOIGT S. Determinants of judicial efficiency: a survey[J]. European Journal of Law and Economics, 2016, 42(2): 183-208. doi: 10.1007/s10657-016-9531-6
    [11] BESLEY T, MONTALVO J, REYNAL-QUEROL M. Do educated leaders matter?[J]. Economic Journal, 2011, 121(554): 205-227. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0297.2011.02448.x
    [12] FRANCK R, RAINER I. Does the leader's ethnicity matter? ethnic favoritism, education and health in Sub-Saharan Africa[J]. American Political Science Review, 2012, 106(2): 294-325. doi: 10.1017/S0003055412000172
    [13] DREHER A, LAMLA A, RUPPRECHT S, et al. The impact of political leaders' profession and education on reforms[J]. Journal of Comparative Economics, 2009, 37(1): 169-193. doi: 10.1016/j.jce.2008.08.005
    [14] MERCIER M. The return of the prodigy son: do return migrants make better leaders?[J]. Journal of Development Economics, 2016, 122: 76-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2016.04.005
    [15] GÖHLMANN S, VAUBEL R. The educational and occupational background of central bankers and its effect on inflation: an empirical analysis[J]. European Economic Review, 2007, 51: 925-941. doi: 10.1016/j.euroecorev.2006.05.001
    [16] HAYO B, NEUMEIER F. Political leaders' socioeconomic background and public budget deficits: evidence from OECD countries[J]. Economics & Politics, 2016, 28(1): 55-78. doi: 10.1111/ecpo.12071/full
    [17] 徐现祥, 王贤彬. 中国地方官员治理的增长绩效[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2011.
    [18] YAO Y, ZHANG M. Subnational leaders and economic growth: evidence from Chinese cities[J]. Journal of Economic Growth, 2015, 20: 405-436. doi: 10.1007/s10887-015-9116-1
    [19] HUANG Y. Managing chinese bureaucrats: an institutional economics perspective[J]. Political Studles, 2002, 50: 61-79. doi: 10.1111/1467-9248.00359
    [20] 苏力. 论法院的审判职能与行政管理[J]. 中外法学, 1999(5): 36-46. https://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-WFXZ199905004.htm
    [21] 贺卫方. 中国司法管理制度的两个问题[J]. 中国社会科学, 1997(6): 117-130. https://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-ZSHK706.010.htm
    [22] BASCAGLIA E, ULEN T. A quantitative assessment of the efficiency of the judicial sector in Latin America[J]. International Review of Law and Economics, 1997, 17(2): 275-291. doi: 10.1016/S0144-8188(97)00007-0
    [23] VOIGT S, EI-BIALY N. Identifying the determinants of aggregate judicial performance: taxpayers' money well spent?[J]. European Journal of Law & Economics, 2016, 41(2): 283-319. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/256055309_Identifying_the_Determinants_of_Judicial_Performance_Taxpayers'_Money_Well_Spent
    [24] MITSOPOULOS M, PELAGIDIS T. Does staffing affect the time to dispose cases in Greek courts?[J]. International Review of Law and Economics, 2007, 27(2): 219-244. doi: 10.1016/j.irle.2007.06.001
    [25] DI VITA G. Factors determining the duration of legal disputes: an empirical analysis with micro data[J]. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 2012, 168(4): 563-587. doi: 10.1628/093245612804469782
    [26] RAMSEYER J M, RASMUSEN E R. Judicial independence in a civil law regime: the evidence from Japan[J]. Journal of Law, Economics & Organization, 1997, 13(2): 259-286.
    [27] SCHNEIDER M R. Judicial career incentives and court performance: an empirical study of the German labor courts[J]. European Journal of Law & Economics, 2005, 20: 127-144. doi: 10.1007/s10657-005-1733-2
    [28] DIMITROVA-GRAJZL P, SUSTERSIC J, ZAJC K. Judicial incentives and performance at lower courts: evidence from Slovenian judge-level data[J]. Review of Law & Economics, 2012, 8(1): 215-252.
    [29] BIELEN S, GRAJZL P, MARNEFFE W. Understanding the time to court case resolution: a competing risks analysis using Belgian data[R]. CEsifo Working Paper, 2017: 6450.
    [30] RAMSEYER J M. Talent matters: judicial productivity and speed in Japan[J]. International Review of Law and Economics, 2012, 32(1): 38-48. doi: 10.1016/j.irle.2011.12.007
    [31] CHRISTENSEN R K, SZMER J. Examining the efficiency of the U. S. courts of appeals: pathologies and prescriptions[J]. International Review of Law and Economics, 2012, 32(1): 30-37. doi: 10.1016/j.irle.2011.12.004
    [32] 周道鸾. 外国法院组织与法官制度[M]. 北京: 人民法院出版社, 2000.
    [33] DJANKOV S, LA PORTA R, LOPEZ-DE-SILANES, et al. Courts[J]. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2003, 118(2): 453-517. doi: 10.1162/003355303321675437
  • 加载中
图(4) / 表(5)
计量
  • 文章访问数:  84
  • HTML全文浏览量:  48
  • PDF下载量:  9
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-02-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-27
  • 刊出日期:  2019-05-28

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回